Portland Public Health Division | 389 Congress Street | Portland, Maine 04101 | (207) 874-8784


proper food handling practices

    At each step in the flow of food through a food service establishment, there are general food safety procedures that should be followed to help reduce the risk of contamination and mishandling and could consequently lead to foodborne illness outbreaks. The following are the basic procedures that help keep all food safe. We will be focusing on the foods that pose the greatest risk of causing a foodborne illness.

Purchasing and Receiving
Dry Storage of Goods
Cold Holding of Food
Walk-in Refrigerator Temperature
Thawing Foods
Cooking Temperatures
Reheating Foods
Hot Holding of Foods
Cooling of Foods
Room Temperature Storage
Final Cook Temperatures
Serving Procedures
Personal Hygiene

Purchasing and Receiving

All foods served in a food service establishment must come from an approved source. Food service establishments should work with their suppliers to ensure the foods they are using meet the food safety standards.

Temperature and time are the two most important factors to control. Foods need to be received and stored as soon as possible. The staff of the food service establishment should be checking for temperatures and conditions of incoming foods.

All refrigerated foods should be put away quickly to prevent time and temperature abuse. Frozen foods should not have large ice crystals, be discolored or dried-out. Canned goods should have labels, no swelling and flawed seams, rust or dents. Never accept home-canned foods because of the risk of botulism.

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Dry Storage of Goods

All canned foods and dry ingredients are stored in a designated area. Foods should not be stored in areas such as restrooms, furnace rooms, stairwells or hallways. Foods should be stored off the floor and in closed containers.

Storage areas should be well ventilated and pest free. Dry storage areas can become a food source for rodent and insects. Keeping containers closed, in sound condition and off the floor help to keep the storage area pest free. Stock rotation is a good management practice.

Foods and chemicals need to be stored separately. Chemicals should be stored below and away from foods to prevent chemical contamination.

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Cold Holding of Food

Cold holding is storing food under refrigeration at 41F or below. Refrigeration prevents food from becoming a hazard by slowing the growth of most microbes. Some organisms like Listeria monocytogenes is significantly slowed but not stopped by refrigeration.

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Walk-in Refrigerator Temperature

The walk-in refrigerator is the major cold storage area in a food service establishment. The temperature of a walk-in refrigerator must be sufficient to adequately hold the food temperature at 41F or below. The temperature of a walk-in refrigerator is usually colder than 41F. to compensate the opening and closing of doors and demands of adding additional foods for storage and cooling.

Foods need to be stored to prevent contamination. All cooked foods and foods that will receive no further cooking should be stored above other foods. Foods need to be stored to allow enough space for air to circulate around them.

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Thawing Foods

Thawing foods may take several hours or days depending on the size of the food item being thawed. Thawing must be done so that the risk of cross-contamination is reduced, and the time that potentially hazardous food is in the temperature danger zone (41F to 140F) is kept to minimum.

To thaw food safely:
1. Thaw under refrigeration (41F and below)
2.Under cold running, safe to drink, water of 70F or less as part of the cooking process.
3. In a microwave then transferred to conventional cooking equipment with no interruption in the process.

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Cooking temperatures


Cooking is the thermal heating of foods at sufficient temperature over time to kill microorganisms in the food.

The following are some general food types and their minimum cooking temperatures:
Rare Roast Beef 130F
Beef, fish, seafood, eggs 145F
Pork 145F
Restructured meat, ground or fabricated meat 155F
Poultry, food containing poultry, stuffed meats or stuffing containing meat, casseroles, containing potentially hazardous foods 165F


Cooking requirements are based on the biology of pathogens (bacteria like E. coli or salmonella). Different species of microorganisms have different susceptibilities to heat.

Food characteristics also contribute to the lethality of cooking temperatures. Heat penetrates different foods at different rates. High fat content reduces the lethality of heat. High humidity in the cooking container or the moisture content of the food aid the lethality of heat.

To effectively eliminate pathogens, there are a number of factors to consider: the level of pathogens in the raw product and the initial temperature of the food and the bulk of the food. Another factor to consider, to kill the pathogenic organisms in food, cooking must heat all parts of the food to the required temperatures.

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Reheating foods

Reheating is the thermal process to heat foods that have been previously cooked and cooled in a food service establishment. Proper reheating can eliminate a major portion of pathogens. Proper reheating is heating a food to 165F within two hours.

The more a food is processed, the greater the risks. When food is held, cooled and reheated, there is an increased risk from contamination caused by personnel, equipment, procedures and other factors. When food is cooked and cooled the product goes through the danger zone (optimal temperature range for microorganisms to grow) several times which also increase the risks.

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Hot holding of foods

Once a food is heated or cooked, the food must be maintained at a temperature to limit the growth of bacteria. The correct hot holding temperature is 140F.

The potential for growth of pathogenic bacteria is higher once a food is reheated, than the potential for growth in raw foods. The spoilage organisms that may be present in raw foods inhibit the growth of pathogens by competition. Once a food is cooked, those spoilage organisms are reduced.

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Cooling of foods

Cooling is a process of removing heat from food quickly enough to prevent microbial growth. One cooling method is placing foods in shallow containers no deeper than 2 inches and leaving them uncovered until cold (41F or below).

When potentially hazardous food is cooled for an extended period, the food is subject to the growth of a variety of pathogenic micro-organisms. Bacteria grow ideally between 70 - 120F. The longer the time the food is allowed to be held in this range, the greater the risk of microbial growth. Allowing excessive time for cooling potentially hazard food has consistently been identified as one of the leading contributing factors to food borne illness.

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Pathogens can be transferred to food from utensils, surfaces (like cutting boards and counter tops), food workers hands, raw meats, poultry, fish and seafood.

Contamination is the presence of disease-causing microorganisms or harmful substances in food. Food can become contaminated at any time and can be contaminated by other foods. To help prevent cross-contamination, raw meats, fish, and poultry must be kept away from cooked and ready-to-eat foods. (i.e. separate cutting boards, separation of duties, preparing vegetables before preparing meats.)

Employees need to minimize bare hand contact with cooked and ready-to-eat foods. Equipment, utensils and food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed and sanitized.

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Room temperature storage

Temperature is one of the prime factors that control the growth of bacteria in food. Many types of pathogens and spoilage bacteria are prevented from multiplying to significant levels that cause food borne illness with proper holding practices. All foods need to be stored cold 41F and below or hot 140F or above.

Preparation procedures should have built in barriers to limit the time potentially hazardous foods are in the temperature danger zone. (41F to 140F.)

To ensure foods are out of their proper temperature zone for as little time as possible, try:
  Refrigerating foods before preparation.
  Preparing foods not further in advance than necessary.
  Preparing small batches of food and return them to the refrigerator before cooking and serving.

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Final cook temperatures

Cooking requirements are based on the biology of pathogens. The amount of heat required to destroy the organisms will vary. Different species of microorganisms are susceptible to varied levels of heat.

To kill all pathogens in foods, cooking must bring all parts of the food to the required temperature for a correct length of time. The temperatures listed above are high enough to take into consideration the time requirement to get all .

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Serving procedures

If you work in food service it is important to develop good serving procedures to protect food and customers.

  Employees should wash their hands after busing and cleaning tables and after touching any item that can contaminate their hands
  Avoid touching ready-to-eat foods with bare hands. Use a utensil such as a tong, deli tissue or glove.
  Do not re-serve unwrapped bread, rolls, crackers, salad dressings, or relish trays.
  Avoid touching the food-contact surfaces of glasses, cups, plates or tableware.

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Personal hygiene

Good personal hygiene of each food service worker is important to good food handling practice. Improper hand washing is known to be the number one cause of food borne illness in Washington State.

Food service workers should wash their hands by applying soap and using warm water, scrubbing thoroughly, rinsing, and then drying using paper towels or a drying device.

Food service workers must wash their hands:

  before starting to work
  during work as necessary to prevent contamination of foods
  after handling unclean items
  after handling raw meat, poultry, or aquatic foods
  after using the restroom (must wash twice, once in restroom and again in kitchen)
  after eating or smoking

Food service workers are required to use utensils to handle ready-to-eat foods. (i.e. tongs, spoons, tissues, foil, gloves). No bare hand contact of ready-to-eat foods should be allowed.

Food service workers must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness and restrain hair as necessary.

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